Lime Plastering & Rendering
Lime plaster in most buildings from the second half of the 17th century onwards was applied in three coats, internally and externally, which enabled a flat finish to be achieved. In agricultural buildings two coats of plaster are common, or even one single coat may be found where an undulating surface was acceptable. Similarly, pre-18th century buildings often have undulating plaster finishes, and this usually indicates that fewer than three coats were used.
- COAT 1 (SCRATCH COAT)
- COAT 2 (FLOAT COAT)
- COAT 3 (FINISHING COAT)
Wattle & Daub
For many people the wonderful irregularities of Wattle & Daub walls and the undulations of a distorted roofline form part of the attraction of a medieval timber framed building. The walls gain their character from the timber frame which forms the load bearing structure of the building, leaving open areas between that have to be infilled to keep the weather out. In moderate, sheltered conditions and if well maintained, a Wattle & Daub panel should last indefinitely. Examples of 700 years old are known to exist.
Wattle & Daub is one of the most common infills, easily recognisable by the appearance of irregular and often bulging panels that are normally plastered and painted. It is an arrangement of small timbers (wattle) that form a matrix to support a mud-based daub. The timbers normally fall into two groups, the primary timbers or staves, which are held fast within the frame and the secondary timbers or withies, which are nailed or tied to, or woven around the staves, ready for the daub to be applied.
Daub is generally made up of a combination of ingredients as follows:
- Chalk Duest
- Limestone Dust
- Crushed Chalk
- Crushed Stone
- Hay or Grass
The binder holds the mix together, the aggregates give it bulk and dimensional stability, the reinforcement helps hold it all together, control shrinkage and provide long term flexibility. Historically, the use of dung, blood or urine in the mix was due to the use of old straw from animal sheds, saving money on buying fresh straw.
For many years the use of traditional lime-based paints was restricted to those involved in the conservation industry, but more recently these paints have enjoyed a renaissance with the consumer due to increased publicity in interior design. Their textured, matt finish and distinctive pastel colours provide an interesting alternative to modern paints, and they are particularly in keeping with the character of old and vernacular buildings.
These paints have much more to commend them than their appearance, as their unique properties make them suitable for various remedial solutions. In particular, their high porosity and permeability enables walls to breathe, reducing the risk of damp.
Externally, limewashes were the most common choice for the walls of buildings particularly in rural areas and small towns prior to the development of modern paint systems.
Internally, limewashes and distempers were used to decorate the walls of most ordinary houses and all but the principal spaces of the most important houses.
- TALLOW LIMEWASH
- CASEIN LIMEWASH
- HYDRAULIC LIMEWASH